Tanzania Water Resources

According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), in 2008 Tanzania had 96.27 km3 of renewable water resources per year.

This corresponds to 2,266 m3 per person and year. Water resources are however distributed unevenly – both in time and space.

During the dry season, which usually lasts from June to October, even large rivers can dry up or their flow declines substantially.

Some parts of the country receive, on average, up to 3,000mm of rain per year, while in other regions (such as the Dodoma Region or the Rift Valley) yearly rainfall averages 600mm.

Projections indicate that by 2025 Tanzania will experience water stress (defined as average per capita water resources below 1,500 m3) due to population growth and the resulting increase in consumption.

Tanzania Water Sector Management

The Tanzanian water sector is divided into two sub-sectors: Water Resources and Sanitation.

The provision of water supply and sanitation services is carried out by the Water Supply and Sanitation Authorities (WSSAs) which are responsible for management of water supply and sanitation services mostly in urban areas, and the Community Owned Water Supply Organisations (COWSOs) in rural areas.

WSSAs are regulated by the Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority (EWURA), while COWSOs are regulated by the Ministry of Water.

The Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA) and the Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Corporation (DAWASCO) are responsible for the provision of water supply services in Dar es Salaam city and neighbouring areas of Kibaha and Bagamoyo.

DAWASA is the asset owner while DAWASCO is the operator for water supply services.

Regional and District WSSAs are responsible for provision of water services in the Regional and District Headquarters, respectively, while Small Towns WSSAs serve the designated Small Towns.

On the other hand, National Projects Water Supply and Sanitation Authorities are the big water schemes that cover more than one Local Government Authorities and serve both urban and rural settlements.

Tanzania Water supply

Slightly more than half the population of Tanzania is estimated to have access to an improved water source, with stark differences between urban areas (about 79% in 2010) and rural areas (about 44% in 2010).

Tanzania Water Quality

During 2013/14, water quality test results reported by regional WSSAs through the MajIs system showed that compliance to E-Coli standards was 84% while compliance to residual chlorine requirements was 86%.

For DAWASCO, compliance to E-Coli requirements was 73% while compliance to residual chlorine requirements was 82%.

Tanzania Wastewater Quality

A total of 10 out of the 23 regional WSSAs have sewerage systems. Data reported by these regional WSSAs revealed that compliance to Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) requirements was 72% and 71%, respectively.

Wastewater effluent from the infrastructure operated by DAWASCO did not comply with BOD5 and COD standards. DAWASCO’s non-compliance is mainly due to poor condition and inadequate capacity of the wastewater treatment plants.

Tanzania Sanitation

In 2007, according to The National Household Budget Surveys, 93% of Tanzanians had some form of latrine, but only 3% had a flush toilet.